Background: Depression is one of the five most-common diseases globally, and is expected to be the second leading cause of disability by 2020 and its economic and social burden is a major problem worldwide 
Objective: The aim of this research was to elucidate the causes and symptoms of depression according to Persian Medicine (PM) and classic medicine.
Methods: In this study, works that were investigated were the Canon of Medicine, Al-Hawi Fi Teb, Kamel Al-Sina'a, Zakhireh Kharazmshahi and Exir A’azam. Classic medicine sources investigated were Kaplan and Sadock's Synopsis of Psychiatry and related articles in the Web of Science, Medline, Scopus, SID and Magiran. Research was done from January through April 2017, using keywords. 
Results:  To explain the biologic causes, various factors including humoral dystemperaments, cold and hot dystemperaments of chief organs especially heart and brain and some qualitative and quantitative changes in medical spirit should be considered. According to manuscripts some mental-emotional events in life can cause these changes. They independently may cause depression. Semiologically some symptoms and signs happen consequently to in the above-mentioned causes which are in common with depression signs and symptoms including grief, crying, low libido, weight loss, appetite and sleep disorders, exhaustion, slow cognitive processing, indecisiveness and willingness to die.
Conclusion: The major biological causes of depression is a group of dystemperamental syndromes (hot, cold, dry, and wet) on different bodily structures (humors, organs, and spirits). So preventive and therapeutic strategies for depression couldn’t be the same for all patients and the treatment should be designed according to the exact diagnosis.


Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder, Temperament, Persian Medicine


» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/6372
Nike Air Max 2017Air Jordan 1 Mid "What The Multi-Color" For Sale

The  most recent editorial (June 2021)

Ethics of Publishing Case Reports: Do We Need Ethics Approval and Patient Consent?

An editorial by Dr. Mehrdad Jalalian

Read more.

The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.


To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here


Our previous editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

Read more.


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: