Background: Memory is the basis for the development of language skills and learning processes, and self-efficacy is one of the most important predictors of academic achievement. 
Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of neurofeedback training (NFB) on verbal and visual memory and self-efficacy in students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences.
Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on students of Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences (Rafsanjan, Iran). Twenty-six students without severe neuropsychological disorder, history of epilepsy and drug abuse were selected randomly and divided into two groups. First, the participants completed the Morgan-Jinks Student Efficacy Scale (MJSES) and then were assessed by Kim Karad Visual Memory Test (KKVMT) and Wechsler Memory Scale for verbal memory (WMSVM). The experimental group underwent 15 sessions of neurofeedback training (NFB) for increase in sensorimotor response (SMR) in central zero (Cz) and fronto-central zero (FCz) location at the psychology clinic Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences. Visual and verbal memory and self-efficacy were assessed by KKVMT, WMSVM and MJSES after completion of sessions and one month later. Posttest and follow-up of the control group were also carried out simultaneously with the experimental group. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 16, using descriptive statistical and repeated measures ANCOVA. The significance level of examining the hypotheses was set at p≤0.05. 
Results: The Mean±SD of verbal memory in the experimental group in pretest, posttest and follow-up was 20±1.9, 22.58±2.1, 22.41±2.06 respectively (p<0.001, Effect size= 0.53). 
There were significant changes in short-term (p=0.001, Effect size =0.41) and long-term (p=0.001, Effect size =0.42) visual memory. The changes of mid-term visual memory and self-efficacy in the experimental group were not significant (p=0.135, p=0.062).
Conclusion: NFB is effective in improving verbal memory and some dimensions of visual memory. Further studies are needed to achieve better results.


Keywords: Neurofeedback, Memory, Self-efficacy


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July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


Previous Issue

In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

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Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: