Background: Orofacial pain is a form of inflammatory pain usually treated with corticosteroids, which have many side effects. 
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and histological profile of antinociceptive effects of hydroalcoholic extract of caper (Capparis spinosa) for the first time in the orofacial region.
Methods: This experimental study was carried out at Babol University of Medical Sciences in 2018. Thirty-six male Wistar mice were divided into 6 groups: The first group received saline, the second group received dexamethazone, and four groups received different doses (10, 20, 50, 100 mg/kg) of caper extract. In the formalin test, 1% formalin solution was injected into the right submucosal layer of the lip and lateral area of the nose. Pain intensities were recorded at 5-min blocks for 60 min after injection. Dose effect of caper on pain was recorded. The mice were euthanized and the oral area was biopsied and stained with Hematoxylin-eosin, Toluidine blue, and Congo red. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and t-test by IBM-SPSS version 20.
Results: Caper produced antinociceptive effects in comparison with saline groups (p<0.001). Dose effect on pain was significant (p<0.001). The highest antinociceptive effect was observed in the caper group receiving 100 mg/kg of agent 15-20 minutes after injection. The highest pain level was observed in the group that received 20 mg/kg of caper (p<0.001). Dexamethazone antinociceptive effect was greater than that of the saline and the dose of 20 mg/kg of caper (p<0.001). Antinociceptive effects in two groups (100 mg caper and dexamethazone) were equal (p>0.999). Histopathologic examination revealed the highest thickness of epithelium, fibrous, and muscular tissue density and the lowest inflammatory infiltration at the dose of 100 mg/kg of caper.
Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that hydroalcoholic extract of caper possesses antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner and caper-induced antinociception might be mediated, at least in part, by anti-inflammatory effects.
Keywords: Caper, Orofacial pain, Formalin test, Histopathology, Antinociception


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July-September 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 3)


Previous Issue

In the second issue of the journal Electronic Physician for 2019, we have several papers including four Randomized Controlled Trials, a model development study, a case report, an editorial, a letter to editor (LTE), and several original research including two studies with qualitative approach. Authors of this issue are from nine countries: Iran, The Netherlands, Sweden, Italy, India, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Jordan. Read more...


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: