Background: Lately, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) has broadly been successfully employed in dentistry. The CAD/CAM systems have recently become commercially available for fabrication of complete dentures, and are considered as an alternative technique to conventionally processed acrylic resin bases.  However, they have not yet been fully investigated.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to inspect the effects of mechanical polishing and chemical polishing on the surface roughness (Ra) and contact angle (wettability) of heat-cured, auto-cured and CAD/CAM denture base acrylic resins.

Methods: This study was conducted at the Advanced Dental Research Laboratory Center of King Abdulaziz University from March to June 2017. Three denture base materials were selected: heat cure poly-methylmethacrylate resin, thermoplastic (polyamide resin) and (CAD\CAM) denture base resin. Sixty specimens were prepared and divided into three groups, twenty in each. Each group was divided according to the polishing techniques into (Mech P) and (Chem P), ten specimens in each; surface roughness and wettability were investigated. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using one-way ANOVA and Pearson coefficient.

Results: One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc tests were used for comparing the surface roughness values between three groups which revealed a statistical significant difference between them (p1<0.001). Heat-cured denture base material of (Group I) in both methods, showed the highest mean surface roughness value (2.44±0.07, 2.72±0.09, Mech P and Chem P respectively); while CAD\CAM denture base material (group III) showed the least mean values (1.08±0.23, 1.39±0.31, Mech P and Chem P respectively). CAD/CAM showed the least contact angle in both polishing methods, which were statistically significant at 5% level (p=0.034 and p<0.001).

Conclusion: Mechanical polishing produced lower surface roughness of CAD\CAM denture base resin with superior smooth surface compared to chemical polishing. Mechanical polishing is considered the best effective polishing technique. CAD/CAM denture base material should be considered as the material of choice for complete denture construction in the near future, especially for older dental patients with changed salivary functions, because of its wettability.


Keywords: CAD\CAM acrylic resin, Acrylic denture base, Polishing, Surface roughness, Wettability
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