Background: Chronic periodontitis is a common public health concern characterized by progressive gingival inflammation. 
Objective: This study assessed the clinical and laboratory effect of diacerein as adjunctive therapy to scaling and root planing (SRP) in the therapeutic management of moderate chronic periodontitis. 
Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on thirty patients suffering from moderate chronic periodontitis at the dental clinic in the Faculty of Dentistry (University of Mansoura, Egypt) between March-October 2018. The participants were randomly allocated into two groups of fifteen subjects each. The control and study group received SRP and diacerein was administered to the study group in the form of a gel-formula applied to the periodontal pocket for 6 weeks. The clinical periodontal parameters assessed pre- and post-treatment were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth, and clinical attachment level (CAL). Samples of gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were also collected at baseline and six weeks after the initiation of the treatment for IL-1ß assessment using ELISA. Clinical parameters collected were compared between and after treatment by descriptive and inferential statistical analysis using IBM© SPSS© Statistics version 20.
Results: Age and gender were not significantly different between the two groups. There was a significant decrease in the median values of clinical indices post-treatment compared to pre-treatment in the study group (test significance=23.07; p<0.001). Interestingly, there was a significant decrease in IL-β1 after treatment in both groups, with a more significant decrease in the study group compared to the control group (p=0.0001). 
Conclusion: Diacerein is an alternative and promising therapeutic option for the management and control of chronic periodontitis. 
Clinical Trial Registration: The trial has been registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.in.th with registration ID: TCTR20190930001.
Funding: No funds or financial support, governmental or non-governmental, was received
Keywords: Periodontitis; Chronic periodontitis; Scaling and root planning; Diacerein; IL-β1


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