Abstract

Background: Pain relief during labour is one of the major concerns in obstetrics; severe labor pain causes fear of the next pregnancy, and interferes with the mother's family relationship. 

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of Entonox during labor on reducing the need for pethidine (Meperidine) and fetal-maternal complications.

Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on pregnant women who were candidates for vaginal delivery in Educational Hospitals of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran between January 2014 and November 2015. After entering into the inactive phase of labor, participants were randomly allocated to receive inhaled Entonox gas (n=200) or inhale Oxygen (n=200) as a control group. Mothers inhaled the gas at commencement of pain, and ceased as soon as the pain diminished, up to the end of the second stage of labor which was the neonate's birth. Main outcomes were pain score based on NRS (numerical rating scale), duration of delivery, required pethidine, maternal complications and satisfaction during labour. Chi-square and Independent T-test were used via SPSS for data analysis and P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: Four-hundred pregnant women with a mean age of 26.4±5.9 years were studied. Complications such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and drowsiness were reported in 25% of the Entonox group and 23% in the control group (p=0.640). Mean of pain severity score during labor in the Entonox and control groups was 4.5±1.2 and 5.2±1.4, respectively (p<0.001). Pethidine requirement, significantly was lower in the Entonox group (31.6±11.8 versus 35.7±12.4; p<0.001). 

Conclusion: In our study, Entonox significantly reduced pain during delivery without significant increase in maternal and neonatal complications. 

Trial registration: The trial is registered at the Iranian Clinical Trial Registry (IRCT.ir) with the IRCT identification number IRCT2015102713159N6. 

Funding: This research has been financially supported by Research Council of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences.

 

Keywords: Entonox, Analgesia, Obstetrical, Pethidine, Narcotics, Inhalation
 
» HTML Fulltext    » PDF Fulltext    » doi: 10.19082/3325
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Current Issue

Volume 13, Issue 1, January-March 2021


The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.

 

To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here

 


 The  most recent editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

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The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


 

TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:


Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: