Abstract

Background: Histologically similar tumors may have different prognoses and responses to treatment. These differences are due to molecular differences. Hence, in this review, the biological interaction of breast cancer in several different areas is discussed. In addition, the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from a biological perspective and current global advances in these areas are addressed. 

Objective: This review provides the performance and clinical application of the most widely-recognized biomarkers, metastasis, and recurrences from the biological perspective and current global advances in these areas. 

Methods: PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched comprehensively with combinations of the following keywords: “breast cancer,” “biological markers,” and “clinical.” The definition of breast cancer, diagnostic methods, biological markers, and available treatment approaches were extracted from the literature.

Results: Estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER-2), and Ki-67 are the most well-known biological markers that have important roles in prognosis and response to therapeutic methods. Some studies showed the response of ER-positive and PR-negative tumors to anti-estrogenic treatment to be lower than ER-positive and PR-positive tumors. Patients with high expression of HER-2 and Ki-67 had a poor prognosis. In addition, recent investigations indicated the roles of new biomarkers, such as VEGF, IGF, P53 and P21, which are associated with many factors, such as age, race, and histological features.

Conclusion: The objective of scientists, from establishing a relationship between cancer biology infrastructures with clinical manifestations, is to find new ways of prevention and progression inhibition and then possible introduction of less dangerous and better treatments to resolve this dilemma of human society.

 

Keywords: Estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, biological markers, breast cancer, human epidermal growth factor receptor-2
 
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Volume 13, Issue 1, January-March 2021


The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.

 

To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here

 


 The  most recent editorial (June 2020)

Lessons from COVID-19 pandemic and the Morocco’s success story.

An editorial by Dr. Benksim Abdelhafid (Morocco)

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The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


 

TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

Call for applications

Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:


Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

About the Instructor

Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: