Written by Roonak Shahoei, Farzaneh Zaheri, Lila Hashemi Nasab, Fariba Ranaei
Parent Category: Year 2017, Volume 9
Category: Volume 9, Issue 10, October 2017
Background: Childbirth and puerperium are of the most important periods in women’s lives and can affect different aspects of their lives.
Objective: To determine the effect of perineal massage in the second stage of labor on perineal lacerations, episiotomy, and perineal pain in nulliparous women.
Methods: This randomization clinical trial was conducted at Be’sat Hospital in Sanandaj, Iran, from 2013 to 2014. A total of 195 nulliparous women were included in the study. The participants were selected through convenience sampling, and randomly assigned to two groups: intervention and control groups. The intervention group received 30-minute perineal massage during second stage of labor. Subsequently, we analyzed perineal laceration, episiotomy, and perineal pain among the two groups. All of them were taught about postpartum perineal pain and its severity, and the researcher followed them up 3 days, 10 days, and 3 months after childbirth by telephone. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 18. We used descriptive statistics and analytical statistics, including t test, Chi-square test, and Fisher's test.
Results: Frequency of episiotomy was 69.47% in the intervention group and 92.31% in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The results revealed 23.16% of first-degree perineal laceration and 2.11% of second-degree perineal laceration in the intervention group, and no vestibular laceration or third- and fourth-degree lacerations in the intervention group. However, there were 5.13% of vestibular laceration, 7.69% of first-degree laceration, 2.56% of second-degree laceration, and 1.05% of third-degree laceration (one woman) in the control group. Based on the results, the postpartum perineal pain was significantly different in both groups.
Conclusion: Regarding the results of this study and those of other studies, perineal massage during the second stage of labor can reduce the need to episiotomy, perineal injuries, and perineal pain.
Trial registration: The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (http://www.irct.ir) with the Irct.ID: IRCT2013090314556N1.
Funding: This study received by financial support of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences, Sanandaj, Iran.
Nike Air Max秋コーデ メンズ【2020/2021年最新】 , メンズファッションメディア
Keywords: Perineal massage, Nulliparous, Laceration, Episiotomy, Second stage
Volume 12, Issue 4, October-December 2020
The worldwide spread of COVID-19 as an emerging, rapidly evolving situation, and the dramatic need of urgent medicine or vaccine, has rapidly brought new hypotheses for pathophysiology and potential medicinal agents to the fore. It is crucial that the research community provide a way to publish this research in a timely manner.
To contribute to this important public health discussion, the Electronic Physician Journal is excited to announce a fast-track procedure to help researchers publish their articles on COVID-19 related subjects that fall under the broad definition of public health, internal medicine, and pharmacology. We are especially welcome to all hypotheses about the pathological basis of the COVID-19 infection and the possible characteristics of potential medicine and vaccine. Submit your manuscript here
The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.
The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:
TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships
Call for applications
Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)
TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:
Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019
Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).
About the Instructor
Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: