Background: Breast cancer is the most common cause of cancer death among women in the world. With prevention and examinations, including breast self-examination, the death rate will be reduced. 

Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of health-belief-model-based training on the performance of women in breast self-examination in the province of Fars (Iran).

Methods: An empirical study examined the effect of an eight-week training program based on the health belief model among 144 women who visited health care centers in the city of Abadeh in Fars Province (Iran) in 2015. Data gathered through researcher-made questionnaires including awareness, components of the health belief model, performance, and demographic information. IBM-SPSS software version 20, descriptive and inferential statistical tests such as T-test, chi-square, Mann–Whitney, and repeated measurements were used for data analysis.

Results: After the intervention, a significant difference was seen in average awareness, perceived susceptibility, and performance of women (p<0.05), while it was not significant in benefits constructs, perceived barriers, and perceived severity and practice guide. After intervention, the average score of awareness was increased significantly (p<0.001). Also, the average score of performance in breast self-examination showed a significant difference (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Due to the low level of awareness of women about breast self-examination, using a health belief model with an increase of the perceived susceptibility could be effective in improving their performance in breast self-examination.


Keywords: Health belief model, Self-examination, Breast cancer, Breast
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Current Issue

October-December 2019 (Volume 11, Issue 4)


The 6th World Conference on Research Integrity (WCRI) is to be held on June 2-5, 2019 in Hong Kong.

The WCRI is the largest and most significant international conference on research integrity. Since the first conference in Lisbon in 2007, it has given researchers, teachers, funding agencies, government officials, journal editors, senior administrators, and research students opportunities to share experiences and to discuss and promote integrity in research. Read more:


TDR Clinical Research and Development Fellowships

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Deadline for submission: 7 March 2019, 16:00 (GMT)

TDR provides fellowships for early- to mid-career researchers and clinical trial staff (e.g. clinicians, pharmacists, medical statisticians, data managers, other health researchers) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to learn how to conduct clinical trials. Read more:

Meta-Analysis Workshops in New York, USA, and London, UK, in April and May 2019

Don't miss this exceptional opportunity to learn how to perform and report a Meta-analysis correctly. Two Meta-analysis workshops are organized in April and May 2019 by Dr. Michael Borenstein in New York, USA (April 08-10, 2019) and London, UK (May 27-29).

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Dr. Michael Borenstein, one of the authors of Introduction to Meta-Analysis, is widely recognized for his ability to make statistical concepts accessible to researchers as well as to statisticians. He has lectured widely on meta-analysis, including at the NIH, CDC, and FDA. Read more: